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The TCP/IP Guide IP Security IPSec Protocols.
I describe security associations and related constructs such as the Security Parameter Index SPI. The last three topics cover the three main IPSec protocols: IPSec Authentication Header AH, IPSec Encapsulating Security Payload ESP and the IPSec Internet Key Exchange IKE.
IPsec Wikipedia.
A second alternative explanation that was put forward was that the Equation Group used zero-day exploits against several manufacturers VPN equipment which were validated by Kaspersky Lab as being tied to the Equation Group 47 and validated by those manufacturers as being real exploits, some of which were zero-day exploits at the time of their exposure. 48 49 50 The Cisco PIX and ASA firewalls had vulnerabilities that were used for wiretapping by the NSA citation needed. Furthermore, IPsec VPNs using Aggressive" Mode" settings send a hash of the PSK in the clear.
An Illustrated Guide to IPsec.
A Cryptographic Evaluation of IPsec, by Bruce Schneier and Niels Ferguson. An interesting paper on the security of IPsec, whose main point is that IPsec is far too complex to ever really be secure something which has crossed our minds as well.
What is IPsec VPN? Webopedia Definition.
Short for IP Sec urity, a set of protocols developed by the IETF to support secure exchange of packets at the IP layer. IPsec has been deployed widely to implement Virtual Private Networks VPNs. IPsec Encryption Modes. IPsec supports two encryption modes: Transport and Tunnel.
IPsec VPN UntangleWiki.
The IPsec VPN service provides secure Internet Protocol IP communications by authenticating and encrypting each IP packet of a communication session. The VPN Overview article provides some general guidance of which VPN technology may be the best fit for different scenarios.

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